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A short introduction to the concepts of metrological traceability and measurement uncertainty is given in the article for readers who are not familiar with them. It also includes a short description of the steps needed to evaluate uncertainty. The article further explains how traceability is assured for the Sysmex haematology calibrators and describes how the uncertainty of these calibrators was evaluated.
Synovial fluid is a viscous liquid found in the cavities of synovial joints. Several articular diseases are characterised by fluid accumulation in joints, so that arthrocentesis and morphological analysis are essential tools for differentiating a non-inflammatory arthropathy from an inflammatory arthropathy or an infectious disease. Cell count and differentiation are important diagnostic aspects in such patients. This first SEED article about synovial fluid summarises the typical characteristics and recommends procedures for specimen collection and handling.
The request for a urine status in the laboratory routine mostly concerns incoming orders within the scope of health check-ups or screening tests, or problems relating to an existing urinary tract infection or possible haematuria. After urine flow cytometry had made its arrival in urinalysis more than 10 years ago, Sysmex today offers the fluorescence flow cytometers UF-1000i and UF-500i with the advantageous semi-conductor laser technology for the analysis of urine.
Various possibilities for screening have become established to obtain information on a urinary tract infection as quickly and as reliably as possible, and also to reduce the number of negative cultures. The fluorescence flow cytometry technology makes it possible to report the majority of negative samples immediately to the doctor and to thus save this part of the culture workload.
The term ‘NRBC’ – ‘nucleated red blood cells’ – refers to precursor cells of the red blood cell lineage which still contain a nucleus. In healthy adults and older children, NRBC can only be found in blood-building bone marrow where they mature. Their appearance in peripheral blood points to extramedullary erythropoiesis or disruption of the blood - bone marrow barrier. Both possible scenarios can only be found in the course of a severe disease.
Direct detection of blood doping is relatively time-consuming and cost intensive. Some of the banned substances, such as recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), can hardly be distinguished from natural, endogenous hormones. This SEED describes how it is nevertheless possible to indirectly detect EPO-like doping with a modern haematology analyser like the XN-Series and reticulocyte parameters. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has played a leading role in the development of the Athlete Biological Passport for monitoring blood parameters such as RET#, RET%, HGB or HCT to ensure fairness among athletes.